Antennae of mobile phones play a fundamental role in keeping the network working optimally. They use an omnidirectional radiation pattern and come in different types. External — these variants were the first antenna configurations for mobile phones. They enabled the possibility to immediately see its positioning in the upper zone of the terminal and generally cylindrical in shape and in some cases telescopic.
Internal – the antenna is not visible and can be placed in any position inside the terminal. When it comes to the device, it relies on external antenna, characterized by a zero footprint comparable to internal antenna as it plays also a function of the frame of the terminal itself, the quintessential.
The choice of the antenna and its location is critical to meet the criteria of reliability of the signal, since this must be efficient in any situation. Under optimal conditions, it should avoid the resonance caused by the contact between two different types of antennas. In addition, there is the so-called “hand effect,” which is characterized by the reduction of the signal during use of the device, as the hand covers the antenna.
Cellular or mobile phone connect to the network through central sorting present in wired core of the cellular network, which in turn is connected to base stations (BTS, Base Transceiver Station). It is very often equipped with three or more radio cells, each capable of different connections (Cell Tower Acquisition) with mobile devices in its respective coverage area.
Your phone allows therefore to have available a connection when you are within range of a base station, especially when there is no physical obstructions or artifacts limiting the spread or propagation of frequencies of electromagnetic radio.
The availability of the service or the presence of cell coverage and the signal power is indicated by the field levels and thus depends on the conditions of radio propagation radio signal. The maximum distance in coverage depends on the specifications related to GSM technology, ranging from a few hundred meters up to 35 km, and the type of terrain on which the communication takes place.
These devices in addition to the transceiver, incorporating electronics consists of a data memory, a processor to perform various applications and software to manage these features. The phones can have an integrated video playback capability, a built-in radio, a chip for WiFi, a USB slot to connect your phone to your PC or camera.
Mobile phones can have different shapes, including a casing. a flap that covers and protects the keyboard or most recently covering the extended keyboard with a compact type.